It is the medical and surgical specialty concerned with the diseases of the female reproductive system (uterus, vagina and ovaries).

As in the rest of medical practice, the main tools for diagnosis are gynecologic history and physical examination. However, the gynecological examination has always been much more intimate than routine physical examination. It also requires specific instruments of the profession, like the speculum, which allows to retract the vaginal tissues to explore the cervix.
Gynecologists are specialists in diagnosis and treatment of symptoms associated with diseases such as:

  1. Cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs
  2. Urinary incontinence
  3. Amenorrhea (absent menstrual periods)
  4. Dysmenorrhea (painful periods)
  5. Infertility
  6. Menorrhagia (abnormally bulky periods): a common indication for hysterectomy
  7. Pelvic organ prolapse
  8. Scabies

Policlinica Barcelona performs services such as visits and as diagnostic tests we performe cytology, abdominal ultrasounds, breast ultrasounds, transvaginal ultrasounds, mammograms, pelvic resonances and urodynamic testing

Vaginal Cytology
A Pap smear is one of the most important diagnostic aids. It is very useful, painless, relatively quick, inexpensive and easy.
Well executed it can show cancer of the cervix and vagina, and gives an idea of the woman’s hormonal activity, and orients something about vaginal infections.

Any woman of reproductive age and / or a history of sexual activity should be performed Pap smears at least once a year. The most important Gynecological symptoms to suspect disease from  at the cervix and vagina are:

  1. Vaginal discharge
  2. Abnormal genital bleeding
  3. Fragant Menstruation

Whenever there is at least some of these symptoms there is a cervical or vaginal pathology. Since blood acts as a medium it facilitates the development of infections when there is vaginal bleeding, including menstrual.

However, the absence of symptoms does not guarantee that there is no disease in the cervix or vagina. Hence the need to practice good Pap smear and ultrasound periodically as each test detects conditions not detected by the other, especially cervicitis and Naboth cysts.

A pap smear is strongly reccomended at least once a year

Abdominal Ultrasound
An Ultrasound is an imaging test, that is, we see images of our internal organs through through a television due to the issue of ultrasound images that are converted by a computer (processor).

An Ultrasound is a technique that uses ultrasound to define structures of organs inside the human body. The ultrasounds are acoustic waves of high frequency
inaudible to the human ear. The ultrasound is the machine that emits the ultrasound and becomes a series of dots that make up an image that is interpreted by the physician.

As noted, the ultrasound is a safe and noninvasive test for which the patient on whom you send a test of this kind, whether abdominal, gynecological or muscular, for example, must be calm and relaxed.

It Is asked, depending on the organ to study, to carry a special diet a few days before and adequate fluid intake and to not urine the minutes (approx. 2-3 hours before) prior to exploration.

You may need to take some laxative pills a few days. the patient will be asked to lie on a stretcher and the abdomen will be discovered, a special gel will be applied as a lubricant and the doctor will apply a probe (transducer) on the skin the same as used on pregnant women, and with it on the abdomen it will be touring this display on the screen until the organs we are interested in are visualized.

Once the scan is done the patient´s abdomen will be cleaned with a gauze and the test is finalized, awaiting for results.

Breast Ultrasound
Breast diseases are very common and breast cancer  is one of the types of cancer that is most common. Therefore, a breast self-exam is essential for early diagnosis that allows for timely treatment.

The main symptoms of breats disease (mammary gland) are:
Pain in one or both breasts
Mass or lump in the breast
Nipple retraction
Removal of blood from the nipple
Expulsion of liquid from the nipple when not  nursing or during pregnancy
Significant size difference between breasts
Redness or changes in breast skin
Swelling under the armpit
Rapid increase in size of one or both breasts
Temperature increase of one or both breasts
It is very important that any woman who has symptoms practices a breast ultrasound, which detects disease five times more than mammography, it is painless and can be repeated without risk.

Breast diseases is often associated with problems of the ovaries, so it is also necessary the appropriate valuation of these whenever there are  problems in the breast. A genetic realationship between ovarian and breast cancer has been found.

Transvaginal ultrasound
Procedure used to examine the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and bladder. An instrument is inserted into the vagina that causes sound waves bounce off the organs inside the pelvis. These sound waves create echoes that are sent to a computer that creates a picture called a sonogram. It is also called a transvaginal ultrasound.

Transvaginal ultrasound can help diagnose the cause of certain types of infertility, pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding and menstrual problems. This procedure can show the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and may reveal: ovarian cysts, ovarian tumors, pelvic infection, uterine fibroids.

Transvaginal ultrasound is also used during pregnancy to monitor fetal growth, listen to their heartbeat and check for ectopic pregnancy and other potential problems.