Neurology is the specialty of medicine applied to diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles.
The brain is a complex organ. For this reason, to discover the cause of your symptoms the neurologist needs to ask you very detailed questions. It is imperative to know exactly the history of all of your diseases.
Then it is likely that your neurologist will need to explore how your nervous system works. He will need to observe your intelligence, language, memory and senses. He will look a the bottom of the eyes, assess their strength, mobility in your joints, sensation in arms and legs, balance, your manner of walking and finally your reflexes.
We may also need to know your blood pressure, heart rate and pulsation rhythm and listen to the heart and lung sounds. After he will explain teh most probable diagnosis and will advise teh most appropriate treatment. This is usually done verbally and in writing (report).
Sometimes, after the questions and the exploring, you rneaurologist may request some special tests to help pinpoint the diagnosis.
The most common are the CT, MRI, Doppler, electroencephalography, electromyography, and various blood tests. Each disease needs to be explored different.
The most common neurological diseases:
- Brain circulatory diseases such as thrombosis and bleeding.
- Migraine headaches, neuralgia and other special pains.
- Brain tumors. Dementias (Alzheimer’s and others).
- Meningitis, encephalitis and other nervous system infections.
- Parkinson’s disease, tremor, tics and other movement disorders.
- Multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, polyneuropathy, muscular dystrophy, ataxias…
- And a long list that includes almost any cause of paralysis.
Neurologists do not tend to treat psychological or mental disorders like depression, insomnia or anxiety. These are treated by psychiatrists. Surgical interventions in the brain, are performed by neurosurgeons.
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